06 Aug 2021
David Banji , Otilia J. F. Banji, and Kavati Srinivas
Purpose. The study evaluated the neuroprotective effect and pharmacokinetic profile of turmeric extract and their metabolites in the blood and brain in an aluminum-induced neurotoxic animal model.
Methods: Swiss albino mice received turmeric extract (TE), TE essential oil combination (TE+EO) at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg/day orally, vehicle (control), and a positive control group. Neurotoxicity was induced by injecting aluminum chloride (40 mg/kg/day, i.p.), and the effect of the intervention was studied for 45 days. The pharmacokinetic and behavioral biochemical markers of brain function and brain histopathological changes were evaluated.
Results: The AUC 0-t showed a 30.1 and 54.2 times higher free curcumin concentration in plasma with 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg of TE+EO vs. TE, respectively. The concentration of free curcumin in the brain was 11.01 and 13.71- fold higher for 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg of TE+EO vs. TE, respectively. Aluminum impairs spatial learning and memory, which was significantly reversed with TE+EO by 28.6% (25 mg/kg) and 39.4% (50 mg/kg). In the elevated plus maze test, 44.8% (25 mg/kg) and 67.1% (50 mg/kg) improvements were observed. A significant reduction in aluminum-induced lipid peroxidation was observed. Also, the levels of glutathione, acetylcholinesterase, and catalase were improved with TE+EO. Damage to the hippocampal pyramidal cells was averted with TE+EO.
Conclusion: The neuroprotective and antioxidant response confirms the benefits of TE+EO against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity. The presence of free curcumin and its metabolites in the brain and plasma establishes its improved bioavailability and tissue distribution. Therefore, the benefits of TE +EO could be harnessed in neurodegenerative diseases.